Occurrence Dot Map:
Data from 1676 occurrences (1450 museum vouchers).
- 993 museum vouchers > 30 yrs.
- 457 museum vouchers < 30 yrs.
- 226 observations.
- 0 literature observations.
408 unique localities.

Collection/Observation Date Quartile Plot:

Collection/Observation by Hour:
13 record(s) from 12:00:00 AM to 1:00:00 AM 7 record(s) from 1:00:00 AM to 2:00:00 AM 2 record(s) from 2:00:00 AM to 3:00:00 AM 2 record(s) from 3:00:00 AM to 4:00:00 AM 3 record(s) from 4:00:00 AM to 5:00:00 AM 0 records from 5:00:00 AM to 6:00:00 AM 0 records from 6:00:00 AM to 7:00:00 AM 0 records from 7:00:00 AM to 8:00:00 AM 0 records from 8:00:00 AM to 9:00:00 AM 0 records from 9:00:00 AM to 10:00:00 AM 0 records from 10:00:00 AM to 11:00:00 AM 2 record(s) from 11:00:00 AM to 12:00:00 PM 0 records from 12:00:00 PM to 1:00:00 PM 1 record(s) from 1:00:00 PM to 2:00:00 PM 0 records from 2:00:00 PM to 3:00:00 PM 0 records from 3:00:00 PM to 4:00:00 PM 3 record(s) from 4:00:00 PM to 5:00:00 PM 0 records from 5:00:00 PM to 6:00:00 PM 0 records from 6:00:00 PM to 7:00:00 PM 0 records from 7:00:00 PM to 8:00:00 PM 1 record(s) from 8:00:00 PM to 9:00:00 PM 6 record(s) from 9:00:00 PM to 10:00:00 PM 21 record(s) from 10:00:00 PM to 11:00:00 PM 14 record(s) from 11:00:00 PM to 12:00:00 AM
1 6 12 18 24

Observation Type:
6 - DOR
98 - AOR
8 - Active, off-road
4 - Under cover
163 - Chorusing

Public Lands Records:
2 - Cheyenne Bottoms Wildlife Area
109 - Cimarron National Grassland
1 - Fort Riley
1 - Geary State Fishing Lake and Wildlife Area
3 - Kirwin National Wildlife Refuge
1 - Logan State Fishing Lake and Wildlife Area
1 - Meade State Park
1 - Meade Wildlife Area
1 - Scott State Park
4 - Smoky Valley Ranch
PLAINS SPADEFOOT
Spea bombifrons, (Cope, 1863)
  (spE'-a bom'-bi-frons)

Recognition:
Can be distinguished from other Kansas frogs by its rounded snout, moist skin, eyes with vertically slit pupils, raised boss between the eyes, and presence of a cornified black 'spade' at the base of each foot.

Geographic Variation:
No geographic variation has been noted for this species in Kansas.

Confusing Species:
No other Kansas frog has the spadelike projection on each hind leg, or the large boss between the eyes.

Distribution:
The Plains Spadefoot is found in western Kansas to the edge of the Flint Hills, and east along the floodplina of the Kansas and Missouri rivers. It is seldom encountered except when chorusing or moving (often across roads) during rainy weather. It prefers areas with sandy loose soil.
County Breakdown: County Name (# occurrences)
Atchison (2), Barber (44), Barton (32), Cheyenne (19), Clark (10), Clay (1), Cloud (2), Comanche (22), Cowley (4), Decatur (5), Dickinson (1), Doniphan (1), Douglas (210), Edwards (3), Ellis (116), Ellsworth (1), Finney (67), Ford (3), Geary (2), Gove (1), Graham (17), Grant (4), Gray (10), Greeley (4), Hamilton (6), Harper (16), Harvey (3), Haskell (1), Hodgeman (1), Jefferson (24), Jewell (3), Johnson (4), Kearney (10), Kingman (24), Kiowa (1), Lane (4), Leavenworth (2), Logan (24), Marion (1), Marshall (5), McPherson (15), Meade (78), Mitchell (7), Morton (144), Ness (27), Norton (1), Osborne (5), Ottawa (1), Pawnee (19), Phillips (10), Pottawatomie (15), Pratt (16), Rawlins (1), Reno (65), Rice (9), Riley (32), Rooks (5), Rush (156), Russell (2), Saline (4), Scott (30), Sedgwick (2), Seward (24), Shawnee (1), Sheridan (1), Sherman (53), Stafford (68), Stanton (2), Stevens (7), Sumner (5), Thomas (119), Trego (14), Wabaunsee (1), Wallace (16), Washington (3), Wichita (2), Wyandotte (4)

Reproduction:
Following heavy warm mid-Spring rains, the males of this species will leave their burrows and congregate around smaller water filled depression to commence chorusing. Females arrive shortly thereafter, and their eggs are laid and fertilized by the males. Each female will lay her 2,000+ eggs in 10 to 15 masses attached to vegetation. The time from egg to the development of a young froglet varies with the environmental conditions of the pool (temperature, dissolved oxygen, and competition), but transformations are known to occur in as little as one week. Tadpoles, typically eat vegetation in the pools, but as conditions become crowded as the pool slowly dries, the larger individuals will turn canibalistic.

Call Description:
The male Plains Spadefoot's call is loud and harsh, and may carry up to 3 kilometers.

<A HREF='calls/439-839.mp3'>[Play Call]</A>
Audio recording by Keith Coleman
Available from Kansas Heritage Photography


Food Habits:
All manner of small arthropods are consumed by this species.

Growth and Longevity:
KU 20012, Barber County, Claude W. Hibbard, 29 August 1935, 64 mm (2.5 inches), Collins (1993).

Fossil Record:
Pleistocene fossils of this species have been collected from McPherson and Meade counties.

Remarks:
Not a target species for this project. However, all records will be kept.

References:
1982. Collins, Joseph T. Amphibians and Reptiles in Kansas, 2nd Edition. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence. Pp. 356.
1987. Irwin, K. J. and J. T. Collins. Amphibians and reptiles of Cheyenne Bottoms. Cheyenne Bottoms: an environmental assessment. Publication of the Kansas Biological Survey and the Kansas Geological Survey, Pp. .
1993. Collins, Joseph T. Amphibians and Reptiles of Kansas. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence, Lawrence. Pp. 397.
1997. Taggart, Travis W. Status of Bufo debilis (Anura: Bufonidae) in Kansas. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter. (109): pp. 7-12.
2006. Altig, Ronald, Roy W. McDiarmid, Kimberly A. Nichols, and Paul C. Ustach. Tadpoles of the United States and Canada: A Tutorial and Key. Electronic files accessible at http://www.pwrc.usgs.gov/tadpole/. Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, MD, USA.. : pp. .
2006. Frost, D., T. Grant, J. Faivovich, R. Bain, A. Haas, C. Haddad, R. De Sá, A. Channing, M. Wilkinson, S. Donnellan, C. Raxworthy, J. Campbell, B. Blotto, P. Moler, R. C. Drewes, R. Nussbaum, J. Lynch, D. Green & W. Wheeler. The amphibian tree of life. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. (297): pp. 370.
2010. Collins, Joseph T., Suzanne L. Collins, and Travis W. Taggart. Amphibians, Reptiles, and Turtles of Kansas. Eagle Mountain Publishing., Provo, Utah. Pp. 400.

User: 54.166.84.82; CCBot/2.0 (http://commoncrawl.org/faq/). © Sternberg Museum of Natural History 1999-2014