Like most toads, they are most active at night and will be able to be found in the evenings towards the end of sunset. Often times you can find them around buildings foraging under lights that attract insects. They frequent a great variety of habitats, but seem to prefer sandy areas. Occasionally it is active during the day, but more frequently remains in its burrow or hides in vegetation.
Consumes anything it can fit into its mouth... primarily invertebrates from beetles to earthworms.
Predators and Defense:
Toads have enlarged glands (called the paratoid glands) on the side of the neck, one behind each eye. These glands secrete a viscous white poison that gets smeared in the mouth of any would-be predator, inflaming the mouth and throat and causing nausea, irregular heart beat, and, in extreme cases, death. Toads pose a danger to pets, which may pounce on and bite them. Humans should take care to wash their hands after handling a toad, and to avoid touching the mouth or eyes until having done so.
Growth and Longevity:
KU 158018, Douglas County, Ken Davidson, 9 July 1975, 120 mm (4.72 inches) SVL, Collins (1993).
Frost et al. (2006) placed all members of the genus Bufo from Kansas into the genus Anaxyrus.
Pleistocene fossils have been reported from Meade, Ellis, Rice, and McPherson counites.
Not a target species for this project. However, all records will be kept.
1854. Girard, Charles. . Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia. 7: pp. .
1996. Green, David M.. The bounds of species: hybridization in the Bufo americanus group of North American toads. Israel Journal of Zoology. 42: pp. 95-109.
1996. Sullivan, B.K., K.B. Malmos, and M.F. Given. Systematics of the Bufo woodhousii complex (Anura: Bufonidae): advertisement call variation. Copeia. 1996(2): pp. 274-280.
2002. Masta, Susan E., Brian K. Sullivan, Trip Lamb, and Eric J. Routman. Molecular systematics, hybridization, and phylogeography of the Bufo americanus complex in eastern North america. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 24: pp. 302-314.
2006. Altig, Ronald, Roy W. McDiarmid, Kimberly A. Nichols, and Paul C. Ustach. Tadpoles of the United States and Canada: A Tutorial and Key. Electronic files accessible at http://www.pwrc.usgs.gov/tadpole/. Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, MD, USA.. : pp. .
2006. Frost, D., T. Grant, J. Faivovich, R. Bain, A. Haas, C. Haddad, R. De Sá, A. Channing, M. Wilkinson, S. Donnellan, C. Raxworthy, J. Campbell, B. Blotto, P. Moler, R. C. Drewes, R. Nussbaum, J. Lynch, D. Green & W. Wheeler. The amphibian tree of life. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. (297): pp. 370.
2010. Collins, Joseph T., Suzanne L. Collins, and Travis W. Taggart. Amphibians, Reptiles, and Turtles of Kansas. Eagle Mountain Publishing., Provo, Utah. Pp. 400.