Occurrence Dot Map:
Data from 2282 occurrences (1601 museum vouchers).
- 1114 museum vouchers > 30 yrs.
- 487 museum vouchers < 30 yrs.
- 681 observations.
- 0 literature observations.
757 unique localities.

Collection/Observation Date Quartile Plot:

Collection/Observation by Hour:
8 record(s) from 12:00:00 AM to 1:00:00 AM 5 record(s) from 1:00:00 AM to 2:00:00 AM 1 record(s) from 2:00:00 AM to 3:00:00 AM 1 record(s) from 3:00:00 AM to 4:00:00 AM 2 record(s) from 4:00:00 AM to 5:00:00 AM 0 records from 5:00:00 AM to 6:00:00 AM 0 records from 6:00:00 AM to 7:00:00 AM 1 record(s) from 7:00:00 AM to 8:00:00 AM 0 records from 8:00:00 AM to 9:00:00 AM 0 records from 9:00:00 AM to 10:00:00 AM 2 record(s) from 10:00:00 AM to 11:00:00 AM 3 record(s) from 11:00:00 AM to 12:00:00 PM 2 record(s) from 12:00:00 PM to 1:00:00 PM 3 record(s) from 1:00:00 PM to 2:00:00 PM 2 record(s) from 2:00:00 PM to 3:00:00 PM 2 record(s) from 3:00:00 PM to 4:00:00 PM 3 record(s) from 4:00:00 PM to 5:00:00 PM 0 records from 5:00:00 PM to 6:00:00 PM 1 record(s) from 6:00:00 PM to 7:00:00 PM 4 record(s) from 7:00:00 PM to 8:00:00 PM 0 records from 8:00:00 PM to 9:00:00 PM 33 record(s) from 9:00:00 PM to 10:00:00 PM 41 record(s) from 10:00:00 PM to 11:00:00 PM 32 record(s) from 11:00:00 PM to 12:00:00 AM
1 6 12 18 24

Observation Type:
24 - DOR
152 - AOR
40 - Active, off-road
16 - Under cover
553 - Chorusing

Public Lands Records:
3 - Baker University Wetlands
2 - Cedar Bluff Wildlife Area
3 - Cheyenne Bottoms Wildlife Area
152 - Cimarron National Grassland
2 - Clark Wildlife Area
1 - Elk City Wildlife Area
2 - Fort Leavenworth
5 - Fort Riley
1 - Glen Elder Reservoir
1 - Glen Elder Wildlife Area
2 - John Redmond Wildlife Area
1 - Kanopolis State Park
6 - Kansas Ecological Reserves
10 - Kirwin National Wildlife Refuge
2 - Logan State Fishing Lake and Wildlife Area
1 - Lovewell Wildlife Area
34 - Meade State Park
5 - Meade Wildlife Area
1 - Nemaha Wildlife Area
19 - Quivira National Wildlife Refuge
1 - Sand Prairie Natural History Reservation
3 - Scott State Park
5 - Sheridan State Fishing Lake
14 - Sheridan Wildlife Area
1 - Sherman State Fishing Lake and Wildlife Area
1 - Smoky Hill Weapons Range
7 - Smoky Valley Ranch
2 - Tuttle Creek Lake Project Lands
1 - Webster State Park
WOODHOUSE'S TOAD
Anaxyrus woodhousii, (Girard, 1854)
  (an-x-I'-rus wood'-house-I)

Recognition:
Males have throats that are darker than the rest of the belly.

Confusing Species:
In the east Woodhouse's Toad could be confused with the American Toad, but the belly of Woodhouse's Toad is usually without dark spots.

Distribution:
Common throughout the state, but least common in southeast Kansas. The populations in extreme southeast Kansas may actually be Fowler's Toads (Bufo fowleri) and are in need of futher examination (genetics, behavior, etc).
A specimen (UMMZ 58937) from Labette County (Oswego) needs to be examined and is not plotted.
County Breakdown: County Name (# occurrences)
Allen (11), Atchison (1), Barber (108), Barton (15), Brown (2), Butler (11), Chase (15), Cheyenne (36), Clark (9), Clay (3), Cloud (6), Coffey (2), Comanche (59), Cowley (99), Dickinson (6), Doniphan (10), Douglas (115), Edwards (6), Elk (1), Ellis (215), Ellsworth (3), Finney (87), Ford (3), Franklin (1), Geary (8), Gove (19), Graham (101), Grant (7), Gray (25), Greeley (1), Greenwood (4), Hamilton (25), Harper (15), Harvey (11), Haskell (1), Hodgeman (3), Jackson (22), Jefferson (7), Jewell (6), Johnson (1), Kearney (10), Kingman (10), Kiowa (4), Labette (1), Lane (20), Leavenworth (4), Lincoln (4), Linn (1), Logan (30), Lyon (3), Marion (54), Marshall (52), McPherson (32), Meade (82), Miami (1), Mitchell (9), Montgomery (4), Morris (1), Morton (164), Nemaha (5), Ness (70), Norton (16), Osage (8), Osborne (9), Ottawa (1), Pawnee (18), Phillips (23), Pottawatomie (76), Pratt (14), Rawlins (9), Reno (31), Republic (2), Rice (14), Riley (49), Rooks (14), Rush (15), Russell (51), Saline (6), Scott (19), Sedgwick (30), Seward (4), Shawnee (6), Sheridan (27), Sherman (1), Smith (3), Stafford (35), Stanton (3), Stevens (4), Sumner (8), Thomas (1), Trego (66), Wabaunsee (19), Wallace (35), Washington (11), Wichita (3), Woodson (1), Wyandotte (7)

Reproduction:
Breeding March to August. Egg strings are attached to vegetation in shallow water.

Call Description:
Call is an explosive and nasal "w-a-a-a-a", lasting from 1 to 4 seconds.

<A HREF='calls/512-1086.mp3'>[Play Call]</A>
Audio recording by Keith Coleman
Available from Kansas Heritage Photography


Behavior:
Like most toads, they are most active at night and will be able to be found in the evenings towards the end of sunset. Often times you can find them around buildings foraging under lights that attract insects. They frequent a great variety of habitats, but seem to prefer sandy areas. Occasionally it is active during the day, but more frequently remains in its burrow or hides in vegetation.

Food Habits:
Consumes anything it can fit into its mouth... primarily invertebrates from beetles to earthworms.

Predators and Defense:
Toads have enlarged glands (called the paratoid glands) on the side of the neck, one behind each eye. These glands secrete a viscous white poison that gets smeared in the mouth of any would-be predator, inflaming the mouth and throat and causing nausea, irregular heart beat, and, in extreme cases, death. Toads pose a danger to pets, which may pounce on and bite them. Humans should take care to wash their hands after handling a toad, and to avoid touching the mouth or eyes until having done so.

Growth and Longevity:
KU 158018, Douglas County, Ken Davidson, 9 July 1975, 120 mm (3.75 inches), Collins (1993).

Taxonomy:
Frost et al. (2006) placed all members of the genus Bufo from Kansas into the genus Anaxyrus.

Fossil Record:
Pleistocene fossils have been reported from Meade, Ellis, Rice, and McPherson counites.

Remarks:
Not a target species for this project. However, all records will be kept.

References:
1854. Girard, Charles. . Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia. 7: pp. .
1996. Green, David M.. The bounds of species: hybridization in the Bufo americanus group of North American toads. Israel Journal of Zoology. 42: pp. 95-109.
1996. Sullivan, B.K., K.B. Malmos, and M.F. Given. Systematics of the Bufo woodhousii complex (Anura: Bufonidae): advertisement call variation. Copeia. 1996(2): pp. 274-280.
2002. Masta, Susan E., Brian K. Sullivan, Trip Lamb, and Eric J. Routman. Molecular systematics, hybridization, and phylogeography of the Bufo americanus complex in eastern North america. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 24: pp. 302-314.
2006. Altig, Ronald, Roy W. McDiarmid, Kimberly A. Nichols, and Paul C. Ustach. Tadpoles of the United States and Canada: A Tutorial and Key. Electronic files accessible at http://www.pwrc.usgs.gov/tadpole/. Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, MD, USA.. : pp. .
2006. Frost, D., T. Grant, J. Faivovich, R. Bain, A. Haas, C. Haddad, R. De Sá, A. Channing, M. Wilkinson, S. Donnellan, C. Raxworthy, J. Campbell, B. Blotto, P. Moler, R. C. Drewes, R. Nussbaum, J. Lynch, D. Green & W. Wheeler. The amphibian tree of life. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. (297): pp. 370.
2010. Collins, Joseph T., Suzanne L. Collins, and Travis W. Taggart. Amphibians, Reptiles, and Turtles of Kansas. Eagle Mountain Publishing., Provo, Utah. Pp. 400.
2010. Collins, Joseph T., Suzanne L. Collins, and Travis W. Taggart. Amphibians, Reptiles, and Turtles of Kansas. Eagle Mountain Publishing., Provo, Utah. Pp. 400.

User: 54.227.12.219; CCBot/2.0 (http://commoncrawl.org/faq/). © Sternberg Museum of Natural History 1999-2014